December 17, 2014- Today, the United States is taking historic steps to chart a new course in our relations with Cuba and to further engage and empower the Cuban people. We are separated by 90 miles of water, but brought together through the relationships between the two million Cubans and Americans of Cuban descent that live in the United States, and the 11 million Cubans who share similar hopes for a more positive future for Cuba.
It is clear that decades of U.S. isolation of Cuba have failed to accomplish our enduring objective of promoting the emergence of a democratic, prosperous, and stable Cuba. At times, longstanding U.S. policy towards Cuba has isolated the United States from regional and international partners, constrained our ability to influence outcomes throughout the Western Hemisphere, and impaired the use of the full range of tools available to the United States to promote positive change in Cuba. Though this policy has been rooted in the best of intentions, it has had little effect – today, as in 1961, Cuba is governed by the Castros and the Communist party.
We cannot keep doing the same thing and expect a different result. It does not serve America’s interests, or the Cuban people, to try to push Cuba toward collapse. We know from hard-learned experience that it is better to encourage and support reform than to impose policies that will render a country a failed state. With our actions today, we are calling on Cuba to unleash the potential of 11 million Cubans by ending unnecessary restrictions on their political, social, and economic activities. In that spirit, we should not allow U.S. sanctions to add to the burden of Cuban citizens we seek to help.
Today, we are renewing our leadership in the Americas. We are choosing to cut loose the anchor of the past, because it is entirely necessary to reach a better future – for our national interests, for the American people, and for the Cuban people.
Key Components of the Updated Policy Approach:
Since taking office in 2009, President Obama has taken steps aimed at supporting the ability of the Cuban people to gain greater control over their own lives and determine their country’s future. Today, the President announced additional measures to end our outdated approach, and to promote more effectively change in Cuba that is consistent with U.S. support for the Cuban people and in line with U.S. national security interests. Major elements of the President’s new approach include:
Establishing diplomatic relations with Cuba-
- The President has instructed the Secretary of State to immediately initiate discussions with Cuba on the re-establishment of diplomatic relations with Cuba, which were severed in January 1961.
- In the coming months, we will re-establish an embassy in Havana and carry out high-level exchanges and visits between our two governments as part of the normalization process. As an initial step, the Assistant Secretary of State for Western Hemisphere Affairs will lead the U.S. Delegation to the next round of U.S.-Cuba Migration Talks in January 2015, in Havana.
- U.S. engagement will be critical when appropriate and will include continued strong support for improved human rights conditions and democratic reforms in Cuba and other measures aimed at fostering improved conditions for the Cuban people.
- The United States will work with Cuba on matters of mutual concern and that advance U.S. national interests, such as migration, counternarcotics, environmental protection, and trafficking in persons, among other issues.
Adjusting regulations to more effectively empower the Cuban people-
- The changes announced today will soon be implemented via amendments to regulations of the Departments of the Treasury and Commerce. Our new policy changes will further enhance our goal of empowering the Cuban population.
- Our travel and remittance policies are helping Cubans by providing alternative sources of information and opportunities for self-employment and private property ownership, and by strengthening independent civil society.
- These measures will further increase people-to-people contact; further support civil society in Cuba; and further enhance the free flow of information to, from, and among the Cuban people. Persons must comply with all provisions of the revised regulations; violations of the terms and conditions are enforceable under U.S. law.
Facilitating an expansion of travel under general licenses for the 12 existing categories of travel to Cuba authorized by law-
- General licenses will be made available for all authorized travelers in the following existing categories: (1) family visits; (2) official business of the U.S. government, foreign governments, and certain intergovernmental organizations; (3) journalistic activity; (4) professional research and professional meetings; (5) educational activities; (6) religious activities; (7) public performances, clinics, workshops, athletic and other competitions, and exhibitions; (8) support for the Cuban people; (9) humanitarian projects; (10) activities of private foundations or research or educational institutes; (11) exportation, importation, or transmission of information or information materials; and (12) certain export transactions that may be considered for authorization under existing regulations and guidelines.
- Travelers in the 12 categories of travel to Cuba authorized by law will be able to make arrangements through any service provider that complies with the U.S. Treasury’s Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) regulations governing travel services to Cuba, and general licenses will authorize provision of such services.
- The policy changes make it easier for Americans to provide business training for private Cuban businesses and small farmers and provide other support for the growth of Cuba’s nascent private sector. Additional options for promoting the growth of entrepreneurship and the private sector in Cuba will be explored.
Facilitating remittances to Cuba by U.S. persons-
- Remittance levels will be raised from $500 to $2,000 per quarter for general donative remittances to Cuban nationals (except to certain officials of the government or the Communist party); and donative remittances for humanitarian projects, support for the Cuban people, and support for the development of private businesses in Cuba will no longer require a specific license.
- Remittance forwarders will no longer require a specific license.
Authorizing expanded commercial sales/exports from the United States of certain goods and services-
- The expansion will seek to empower the nascent Cuban private sector. Items that will be authorized for export include certain building materials for private residential construction, goods for use by private sector Cuban entrepreneurs, and agricultural equipment for small farmers. This change will make it easier for Cuban citizens to have access to certain lower-priced goods to improve their living standards and gain greater economic independence from the state.
Authorizing American citizens to import additional goods from Cuba-
- Licensed U.S. travelers to Cuba will be authorized to import $400 worth of goods from Cuba, of which no more than $100 can consist of tobacco products and alcohol combined.
Facilitating authorized transactions between the United States and Cuba-
- U.S. institutions will be permitted to open correspondent accounts at Cuban financial institutions to facilitate the processing of authorized transactions.
- The regulatory definition of the statutory term “cash in advance” will be revised to specify that it means “cash before transfer of title”; this will provide more efficient financing of authorized trade with Cuba.
- U.S. credit and debit cards will be permitted for use by travelers to Cuba.
- These measures will improve the speed, efficiency, and oversight of authorized payments between the United States and Cuba.
Initiating new efforts to increase Cubans’ access to communications and their ability to communicate freely-
- Cuba has an internet penetration of about five percent—one of the lowest rates in the world. The cost of telecommunications in Cuba is exorbitantly high, while the services offered are extremely limited.
- The commercial export of certain items that will contribute to the ability of the Cuban people to communicate with people in the United States and the rest of the world will be authorized. This will include the commercial sale of certain consumer communications devices, related software, applications, hardware, and services, and items for the establishment and update of communications-related systems.
- Telecommunications providers will be allowed to establish the necessary mechanisms, including infrastructure, in Cuba to provide commercial telecommunications and internet services, which will improve telecommunications between the United States and Cuba.
Updating the application of Cuba sanctions in third countries-
- U.S.-owned or -controlled entities in third countries will be generally licensed to provide services to, and engage in financial transactions with, Cuban individuals in third countries. In addition, general licenses will unblock the accounts at U.S. banks of Cuban nationals who have relocated outside of Cuba; permit U.S. persons to participate in third-country professional meetings and conferences related to Cuba; and, allow foreign vessels to enter the United States after engaging in certain humanitarian trade with Cuba, among other measures.
Pursuing discussions with the Cuban and Mexican governments to discuss our unresolved maritime boundary in the Gulf of Mexico-
- Previous agreements between the United States and Cuba delimit the maritime space between the two countries within 200 nautical miles from shore. The United States, Cuba, and Mexico have extended continental shelf in an area within the Gulf of Mexico where the three countries have not yet delimited any boundaries.
- The United States is prepared to invite the governments of Cuba and Mexico to discuss shared maritime boundaries in the Gulf of Mexico.
Initiating a review of Cuba’s designation as a State Sponsor of Terrorism-
- The President has instructed the Secretary of State to immediately launch such a review, and provide a report to the President within six months regarding Cuba’s support for international terrorism. Cuba was placed on the list in 1982.
Addressing Cuba’s participation in the 2015 Summit of the Americas in Panama-
- President Obama will participate in the Summit of the Americas in Panama. Human rights and democracy will be key Summit themes. Cuban civil society must be allowed to participate along with civil society from other countries participating in the Summit, consistent with the region’s commitments under the Inter-American Democratic Charter. The United States welcomes a constructive dialogue among Summit governments on the Summit’s principles.
Unwavering Commitment to Democracy, Human Rights, and Civil Society
A critical focus of our increased engagement will include continued strong support by the United States for improved human rights conditions and democratic reforms in Cuba. The promotion of democracy supports universal human rights by empowering civil society and a person’s right to speak freely, peacefully assemble, and associate, and by supporting the ability of people to freely determine their future. Our efforts are aimed at promoting the independence of the Cuban people so they do not need to rely on the Cuban state.
The U.S. Congress funds democracy programming in Cuba to provide humanitarian assistance, promote human rights and fundamental freedoms, and support the free flow of information in places where it is restricted and censored. The Administration will continue to implement U.S. programs aimed at promoting positive change in Cuba, and we will encourage reforms in our high level engagement with Cuban officials.
The United States encourages all nations and organizations engaged in diplomatic dialogue with the Cuban government to take every opportunity both publicly and privately to support increased respect for human rights and fundamental freedoms in Cuba.
Ultimately, it will be the Cuban people who drive economic and political reforms. That is why President Obama took steps to increase the flow of resources and information to ordinary Cuban citizens in 2009, 2011, and today. The Cuban people deserve the support of the United States and of an entire region that has committed to promote and defend democracy through the Inter-American Democratic Charter.
Jay Hill, a member of the second class of Faces of Farming & Ranching, is a vegetable, beef and nut producer from New Mexico. Like Erin Brenneman and Darrell Glaser, he too is committed to answering America’s questions about where our food comes from, and he shares his perspectives here.
Jay’s father, Jim Hill, established Hill Farms in 1969. Throughout the 70’s and 80’s, the farm grew slowly while his family lived off a non-agriculture income. As Jay grew up helping with the farm, learning and growing with it, he cultivated his love for the lifestyle. He now farms between 500-700 acres. Jay focuses on vegetable production, always aspiring to grow a good tasting, safe product in the most cost effective way.
Why are you excited to be a Face of Farming & Ranching?
To limit my excitement to one word or sentence is extremely difficult! What I’m most excited about is the people I have yet to meet. The opportunity to share my story with them, and to listen to what they think about our family’s farm, and the process of how we grow healthy, great tasting food, are what come to mind first.
How can you help consumers make a connection with farmers and ranchers?
I hope to bring a positive perspective to agriculture. People need to know that the American farmer/rancher works hard to put food on your table, and we always have the end consumer in mind. We love what we do and I hope we can show that passion to the world.
What else can farmers do to give a window into their day to day lives?
My first challenge I would like to tackle would be helping other farmers feel comfortable with opening their gates to show the world where their food comes from. Second challenge would be talking face to face with critics who are truly concerned about how food is produced. I feel that sitting down and having an intellectual discussion would help to clear up a lot of misconceptions they have.
Finally, Jay is also a very talented photographer and you can see his work on Hill Farms’ Facebook page here.
December 10, 2014 … It is a privilege to be here today as Chairman of the Commodity Futures Trading Commission (CFTC). I appreciate the opportunities I have had to meet with many of you during the confirmation process and since, and value your suggestions on the issues facing the Commission. I look forward to this Committee’s continued input going forward.
The CFTC is tasked with oversight of the futures, options, and swaps markets. These are highly complex, global markets that most Americans do not participate in. But these markets are profoundly important to the daily lives of all Americans. They impact the prices we all pay for food, energy and many other goods and services.
The derivatives markets enable businesses of all types to manage risk—whether it is a farmer locking in a price for his crops, the utility managing its fuel cost, or the exporter hedging foreign exchange risk. For these markets to work well, good regulation is essential. That is why the Commission’s job is so important. We must do all we can to prevent fraud and manipulation in these markets, to make sure these markets operate with integrity and transparency, and to help them thrive. I am committed to working with this Committee and Congress to make sure our financial markets continue to be innovative, dynamic, and an engine for economic growth.
Today, I would like to review what we have done over the last six months since I, as well as two of the other three Commissioners, took office. It has been a busy and productive time for us. In particular, I will discuss our progress in bringing the over-the-counter swaps market out of the shadows. I will also discuss our work to make sure our rules do not pose undue burdens or unintended consequences for the commercial businesses that rely on these markets. Finally, I will discuss some key priorities.
I want to note that, although much of what I will discuss concerns implementation of the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act (“Dodd Frank”), and the new regulatory framework for swaps, we are equally focused on our traditional areas of responsibility, the futures and options markets. On a day to day basis, a lot of what we do is to focus on the registrations, examinations, rule reviews, product monitoring, and surveillance of these markets to make sure they operate with integrity. While these markets cover many diverse commodities, they had their origins in agricultural products which remain very important to our work. In this regard, just yesterday we had a productive meeting of our Agricultural Advisory Committee, of which I am the sponsor. We were honored to have Secretary Vilsack as our special guest. It was an excellent opportunity to gather input directly from farmers, ranchers, and others who rely on these markets day in and day out.
Our advisory committees are very important. Commissioner Wetjen recently held a very informative meeting of our Global Markets Advisory Committee, which focuses on matters that affect the integrity and competitiveness of U.S. markets and U.S. firms engaged in global business, and makes recommendations for appropriate international standards for regulating futures, swaps, options, and derivatives markets, as well as intermediaries. He will also be convening a meeting of our Technology Advisory Committee in the coming months. Commissioner Giancarlo has been working to build up our Energy and Environmental Markets Advisory Committee, which advises the Commission on matters of concern to exchanges, firms, end users, energy producers, and regulators regarding energy and environmental markets and their regulation by the Commission. And, Commissioner Bowen, who is sponsoring our new Market Risk Advisory Committee, has requested public comment on its agenda and membership. This committee helps the Commission identify and understand the impact of an evolving market structures and movement of risk across clearinghouses, exchanges, intermediaries, market makers, and end-users.
Before I discuss implementation of reforms, I would like to highlight one item: our recent enforcement action regarding attempted manipulation of foreign exchange rate benchmarks by some of the largest banks in the world. Our investigation revealed that they attempted to manipulate one of the largest markets in the world. We ordered the banks to pay almost $1.5 billion in penalties and to agree to implement reforms designed to prevent the recurrence of this behavior.
This is an important case. As we saw with the investigation and fines in the Libor cases, benchmarks such as these are extremely important to our futures and swaps markets and to the financial system generally. And the system only works if market participants have confidence that benchmarks are not being manipulated. These actions exemplify the CFTC’s commitment—and my commitment—to the robust enforcement necessary to safeguard the integrity of our markets. I will further discuss these efforts later in my testimony.
For the full testimony: Senate Testimony of Timothy Massad_CFTC_20141210
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